Science

Science - Kent Week

 

 

 

You will need:

  • 8 small bowls / containers / cups
  • Water
  • A selection of things to preserve the apples e.g. salt, lemonade, vinegar, fizzy water, vitamin C fizzy tablet etc.
  • A timer or clock
  • Paper and pencil to label your samples
  • Paper and pencil to record your results

 

 

 

 

This section of OS map shows a long (14mile!) walk starting in Ightham, but if you look closely, all the areas which are white with green dots are actually orchards! There are a lot! Next time you go for a walk, can you spot any orchards? Which stage of the fruit growing are the trees at? Do they have leaves? Are they blossoming? Has frut started to grow? Has fruit fallen onto the ground? Are people harvesting the fruit? There is a lot to examine when walking through an orchard! (Do remember to stay on the footpath, not to touch the trees or take any fruit or flowers. This is important especially because the trees are often sprayed with insecticides which can be harmful to humans).

 

 

 

 

 

THE INVESTIGATION

 

It seems like everyone has an idea on the best way to keep apples looking fresh and stop them from turning brown.   Here are some ideas, but feel free to try your own using things you have at home!  Be sure to add a control which will show you how the apple turns brown with no treatment.

Ideas for how to keep apples from turning brown:

  • Honey(1 teaspoon honey mixed with 1 cup water)
  • Lemon juice(1 teaspoon juice mixed with 1 cup water)
  • Salt(1/2 teaspoon salt mixed with 1 cup water)
  • Vitamin C (1 tablet crushed and dissolved in 1 cup of water)
  • Sprite
  • Carbonated water (bubble/fizzy water)
  • Tap water
  • Experiment Control (no treatment)

 

Hypothesis – make your prediction as to which apple you think will be preserved the best (turn the least brown). What makes you think this?

 

Variables

Independent variable – what do YOU change in each bowl?

Dependent variable – what are you measuring / recording?

Controlled variables – what will you keep the same to make it a FAIR test? (e.g. size of piece of apple, type of apple…)

 

Method:

  1. First set out 8 bowls big enough to cover the slice completely with the solution.  Label each bowl so you don’t mix up the solutions.
  2. Make each of the solutions in a separate cup.
  3. Cut one apple into 8 slices of approximately the same size.  If you use more than one apple, you’re adding variables to the experiment as some apples may brown at different rates than the others.
  4. Place an apple slice into each bowl.  You can use the core as the control.
  5. Immediately cover with each solution, one per bowl.
  6. Wait a period of time (you can choose - 20 minutes might work well, but if after this time nothing has happened you might wish to leave the apple longer – as long as each piece of apple is left for the SAME amount of time, it will still be fair).
  7. Pour off solution from each apple piece and inspect each apple for brown colour.  Record your observations.
  8. (Optional) Taste each apple piece (it might be wise to rinse it first!!) and record your observations.

Diagram / Photograph of set-up

 

Conclusion

Which apple is the most brown? Which is the least brown? What is best at keeping the apples freshest (the least brown)? Which apple tastes best? What was the texture like? What is best at keeping the apples tasting good?

 

Evaluation

What went well? What could be improved? Did you manage to keep it a fair test? Why / why not? What else could you investigate with apples?

 

Extra help:

Results table

Substance the apple was immersed in

Visual observations (what you could see)

Rank (where 1 is the whitest apple)

Taste observations

Rank (where 1 is the best tasting apple)

e.g. salt water

Apple flesh was light brown.

4

Sweet but the flesh was quite soggy.

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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